关于写作中的he和she

学习啦  美婷   2020-04-15 09:00:47

  几十年来,尽管非性别歧视语还没有达到非用不可的程度,但它毕竟已进入日常生活当中。接下来,小编给大家准备了关于写作中的he和she,欢迎大家参考与借鉴。

  关于写作中的he和she

  随便翻开一张英美的报纸,或看一眼五花八门的宣传广告,就会发现supervisor(工头,领班)替代了原来的foreman,sales rep,sales associate或seller(推销员)取代了常用词salesman,等等。那么在日常的英语公文写作当中,我们又该如何避免产生性别歧视呢?牢记下面几点,确保你不犯错哦!

  1. 尽量不要用通性代词he,除了明确地指代一个男性人物时,都要设法避免使用这个词?梢愿萦锞承枰,选用下列替换方式:

  1)采用复数形式。

  Sexist: When bathing a baby, never leave him unattended.

  Revised: When bathing babies, never leave them unattended.

  给婴儿洗澡时,一定要时刻在他们旁边照管。

  2)用we/us/our改写原句。

  Sexist: From each according to his abilities, to each according to his needs.

  Revised: From each of us according to our abilities, to each of us according to our needs.

  各尽所能,按需分配。

  3)改用第二人称。

  Sexist: No man knows his true character until he has run out of gas, purchased something on an installment1 plan and raised an adolescent.

  Revised: You don't know what your true character is until you have run out of gas, purchased something on the installment plan and raised an adolescent.

  只有当汽车没油、分期付款购物和抚养青春期的孩子时,人的本来品性才会显露出来。

  4)改用被动语态。

  Sexist: One who, when he has the choice of two evils, chooses both.

  Revised: One who, when given the choice of two evils, chooses both.

  当面对两种罪恶要做出选择的时候就两个都选。

  5)完全省略代词。

  Sexist: What does a person thinks of after he becomes a deportee?

  Revised: What does a person thinks of after becoming a deportee?

  一个人被驱逐之后会作何感想呢?

  6)用冠词替代。

  Sexist: Can a critic give his opinion of...?

  Revised: Can a critic give an opinion of...?

  评论家能评论...吗?

  7)用someone,one,the one,no one等替代。

  Sexist: He who can take advice is sometimes superior to he who can give it.

  Revised: Someone who can take advice is sometimes superior to the one who can give it.

  接受忠告者有时胜过发出忠告者。

  8)使用he and she或his and her,但使用的次数不宜太多。she/he仅可用于备忘录(memos)、便条(notes),或者非正式的交谈之中。

  9)用名词或上下文中用过的同义词替换。

  Sexist: To find a friend one must close one eye - to keep him, two.

  Revised: To find a friend, one must close one eye - to keep one, two.

  想找朋友,就得睁一只眼,闭一只眼;想留住朋友,就得双眼都闭上。

  2. 尽量使用那些包括两性在内的词,即无性别之分的词(gender-free words)。

  例如:child,teacher,officer(警官),people,worker,immigrant(移民),voter(投票者,选民),coach(教练),church member(教友),sales rep(推销员),grand parent(外/祖父或祖母),leader,evening student,employee (雇员),test taker (考生,应试者),engineer,customers(顾客),dealer(交易者,商人),clerk(职员,办事员),civilian(平民),scientist,operator(接线员,办事员),patriot(爱国者),person,planner(策划者,计划者),politician(政客),producer(生产者、制造者),tutor(家庭教师,导师),reporter,writer,chief executive(首席行政长官),everybody,expert等。

  3. 写信时,如果不知道收信人的性别,最好不要使用传统的Dear Sir和Dear Madam?梢匝∮孟铝兄唬

  1) Dear Friends of the Library(亲爱的图书馆的朋友们)

  2)Dear Sir/Madam, (亲爱的女士们及先生们)

  3) Dear Personnel Officer(亲爱的人事处长)

  4)Dear Committee Member(亲爱的委员)

  5)Dear Citizen(亲爱的公民)

  6)Dear Customer(亲爱的顾客)

  7) Dear Councilor(亲爱的参议员/顾问)

  8)Dear Agent(亲爱的代理)

  9)Dear Director(亲爱的厂长/局长/主任)

  10) To Whom it May Concern(致有关人士)

  扩展:英语面试问答若干

  如果是跳槽,面试的时候通常都会被问到为什么要离开现在的工作。怎样回答才能得体圆满呢?看了下面的对话,你就会有启示哦!

  Q--Interviewer A--Interviewee

  Q: Why do you want to leave your current job?

  你为什么要离开目前这份工作?

  A: There is no room for the career growth and advancement1 I would like.

  那里缺乏一个让我在事业上成长和晋升的空间。

  Q: What kind of opportunities are you looking for?

  你所寻找的是什么样的机会?

  A: I am looking for a company that recognizes and rewards hard work.

  我希望找到能认同并奖励辛勤工作的公司。

  Q: What was your biggest accomplishment2 on the job?

  你在工作上取得的最大成就是什么?

  A: I think it was building team spirit among my co-workers.

  我认为是我在同事之间建立起了团队精神。

  Q: How did you do that?

  你是怎么做到的呢?

  A: It was a gradual3 process, involving many factors.

  那时一个渐进过程,牵涉到很多因素。

  Q: Why do you want to be a part of our organization?

  你为什么想加入我们公司?

  A: I think it will be a mutually beneficial relationship.

  我的加入对双方都有利。

  Q: How so?

  怎么说?

  A: I think your company and I have a lot to offer each other.

  我认为贵公司与我都有许多东西可以彼此提供。

  Q: Why should we hire you?

  我们为什么应该雇佣你呢?

  A: Because I am a hard worker and will perform to the best of my ability.

  因为我工作刻苦,而且会竭力去做。

  Q: Do you know what's involved in a job like this?

  你知道这样的工作需要付出什么吗?

  A: Yes. I know what's involved.

  是的,我知道要付出什么。

 



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